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( 429 ) 

XXV, The Butter flies of ManrUms and Bourhon. By 


[Read October 4ih, ISO 7.] 


It is now more than forty years since Mr. Trim en published 
his paper on the butterflies of Mauritius in the Transactions 
of this Society, and as far as I know nothing; has been 
written on the subject in the interval. It is perhaps as 
well that the list of butterflies occurring in Mauritius 
should be brought up to date, and if some forty years 
hence another entomologist should add his experiences, 
the Society would be in possession of an entomological 
history extending over a hundred years, and of some 
valuable facts regarding the constant ebb and flow of 
butterfly life in that island, Jn the present paper I add 
five insects to Trimens list^ namely Pa/pilio demodoeus, 
Cacyreus Hngetis^ Zimra antanossa, Zizerci gaiha and Naea- 
diiha }nandeTS% Druce. The specimen of Lihytliea ciiiyras 
still remains unique^ and another species, Salamis mu/us^ 
Una, is extinct or virtually so. One of Trimen's insects, 
Catopsilia rhadia^ I have removed as being a synonym ot 
C\ fioTeUa, thus making the total number of Mauritius 
butterflies thirty. Clianges of nomenclature are somewhat 
frequent, and I have mostly followed Aurivillius (*' Rhopa- 
locera iEthiopica/* 1898). I have at the same time given 
the names and the number of the insects used by Triraen in 
the above mentioned paper, as it is still used by local 
entomologists who might otherwise be puzzled by my list, 
Triraen's list was admittedly incomplete, as his stay in the 
island was short and quite at the most unfavourable season 
of the year for collecting; it is therefore a matter of 
surprise that he managed to obtain as many species as he 
did- The investigations of the last forty years show con- 
clusively that the whole of the butterfly-fauna of these 
islands is entirely African, and probably mostly derived, as 
we should expect, from Madagascar, 

As Mauritius, and even more so Bourbon (or Reunion^ 
as it is invariably called by the inhabitants), are but little 

TRANS. ENT, SOC. LOND. 1907.— PAET IV. (FEB. '08) 

430 Lieut.-Colonel N. Manders on the 

known to English entomologists, I may perliaps give a few 
details, which may not prove uninteresting, regarding their 
physical characteristics in which they differ very materially. 
Mauritius is about the size of the county of Dorset, being 
about thirty-six miles from north to south and ahnost 
the same from east to west. It is comparatively flat, the 
large plateau known as Plain Wilhems at the approximate 
elevation ^of 700 feet, occupying the whole central portion 
of the island, and gradually spreading outwards towards 
the north at a decreasing elevation. The whole of this 
plain was covered with forest at the beginning of the last 
century, so thick in parts that on one occasion the 
Governor of the island and his party were lost for four 
days before making their exit. Now the forest has entirely 
disappeared, its ];>lace being taken by sugar-cane, which is 
of not much interest to an entomologist. The hills, which 
nowhere exceed 2,300 feet in elevation, are of volcanic 
origin, and mostly the remains of the walls of extinct 
craters. Tlioir sides are consequently steep, frequently 
precipitous, and are usually covered with jungle, portions 
of it no doubt being the remains of the original forest. 
The only extensive tract of the primeval forest remaining 
is in the south-west portion of the island ; this covers the 
sides and summits of the lulls overlooking the sea, and 
spreads northwards to join the central plain in the neigh - 
bourliood of Curepipe, 1,800 feet, becoming more open and 
of smaller growth as it approaches the more inhabited 
districts. It is difficult of access and disappointingly un- 
productive. I have found no butterflies peculiar to it, 
and in fact butterflies are very distinctly scarce in it. For 
a considerable portion of the year it is subject to deluges 
of rain, the ground becomes water-logged > and immediately 
oflf the few narrow patijs incren^ingly difficult or impassable. 
It is interesting, profoundly so, to a naturalist, as it is the 
final refuge of the few remaining indigenous birds. The 
climate varies, but is usually considered to be six months cool 
and dry from June to November, and hot and moist from 
December to May. Unlike Bourbon, Mauritius is entirely 
surrounded by a coral reef, which at places comes within 
a few hundred yards of the shore, at others is two or even 
three miles out. It is a paradise for the marine zoologist, 
and for those with no natural history tendencies, its calm 
seas J transparent water , and lovely bays with their glorious 
sands, can scarcely be surp^nssed for exquisite beauty in 

BidterJUes of Mcmritms and Botirdon, 431 

any tropical island. Bourbon is altogether diflferent, deep 
T^^ater and heavy breakers come straight on to the beach 
Avithout any natural breakwater, and the shore is covered 
with huge water-worn boulders and rounded pebble Sj with 
an entire absence of marine life. In the one case we have 
quiet seas and intense natural beauty, in the other the 
whole coast, so far as I saw it, is subject to the full and 
eternal swell of the Indian Ocean. 

In physical features Bourbon is also different to 
Mauritius; though very much of the same 'size or rather 
smaller, it is distinctly mountainous^ and evidences of 
volcanic action are even more marked. One can get a 
good idea of the country by placing three circles in a 
trianjjle and touch in fj each other, with the base to the 
west These three circles, each about five miles in 
diameter, represent three extinct volcanoes ; place another 
circle to the south of these but separated from them and 
this will mark the position of the present active crater 
which is on the coast. The centre of the easternmost 
crater is exactly the centre of the island, and the part 
where the three circles meet forms the main mountain 
range running north and south, the highest point, the 
Piton des Nieges, being over 10,000 feet above the level 
of the sea and covered with snow for a considerable portion 
of the year. This trend of the hills gives a very different 
character to the climate on either side of it. The trade- 
winds striking the cold eastern flanks of these mountains 
deposit their moisture in heavy rain, tlie western portion 
only receiving occasional showers on their hill-sides, the 
coast rarely receiving any rain at all It is a country 
where I fully hoped to find species of Teracolus and Acrma, 
if illness had not put a very decided veto on any exploration 
I had contemplated. The chief villages, I cannot call them 
towns, are built at the bottom of the aforesaid three craters, 
the eastern one beincj Salazie, the western Cilaos, and the 
northern Mafitte. It is a peculiar experience living in 
such a situation, and though very beautiful from the 
verdure of tlie numerous smaller hills scattered over the 
floor of the crater, and the fantastic appearance of the 
cliffs forming its edge, one s view is limited to the siir- 
rounding riTgged cliffs, and after a short residence I had an 
almost irresistible desire to climb up and peep over the 
other side, much like a kitten at the bottom of a basket. 
There is but one road to each of these craters, that up the 

TRANS, ENT. SOC, LOND, 1907. — PART IV, (fEE. '08) 29 

432 Lieut.- Colonel N. Manders on the 

gorge of Salazie being a good coach road for some twenty 
miles. Tills is the iinest gorge it has been my good 
fortune to visit in any part of tlie world. It is a ritt in 
the crater, and a geologist would liave no difficulty in 
tracing the course of the erupting lava from the volcano to 
the sea. Now a river occupies the bottom of the rift, and 
the jungle-covered precipices, mostly almost perpendicular, 
wdth innumerable waterfalls of over a thousand feet in 
1 1 eight, makes the drive out of great interest and beauty. 
I did not nctice nmny butterflies here. The g<jrge is so 
extremely narrow that there is very little sunshine, and I 
was disappointed, as, although I did not expect many 
species, I fully anticipated a great number of individuals. 

Cilaos is at a higher elevation, 4,000 feet, and access is 
difficult. One is usually carried up in a chair on the 
shoulders of a succession of stahvart porters, for a distance 
of Something like thirty miles. The road or rather track 
is cut out of the steep h ill-side, which being composed of 
shale is constantly slipping down, with the result that it is 
not at all uncommon for large portions of it to be carried 
away. It is far too narrow for wheeled traffic, and indeed 
one's chair frequently overhangs a clear drop of several 
hundred feet in a manner distinctly alarming. Con- 
sequently in Cilaos horses and cattle are unknown, life is 
primitive and I should think deadly moimtonous, the only 
diversion so far as I could judge being a stroll to the 
neighbouring chalybeate spring for a draught of water. 
The forests, once so extensive as to cover the wdiole central 
area, are being rapidly destroyed. Dr. Jacob, who has 
resided in the island for fifty years, told me that he 
remembered when the whole of the Salazie district was a 
beautiful forest, and when tlie Bourbon starhng {FregUvjpm 
tarim) was quite conunon. Tliis bird has now been extinct 
for five and twenty years, and the forests are following it. 
The flora is in many respects different from that of 
Mauritius, and I should say that a Microlepidopterist 
w^ould make most interesting discoveries at tlie higher 
elevations. Unfortunately illness almost entirely ruined 
any chances I had in this direction. 

The late Dn Vinson, Curator of the Natural History 
Museum, St. Denys, made two lists of the butterflies of 
Bourbon, one in 1891, the other in 1896 ; both are out of 
print and difficult to obtain. They contain many interest- 
ing notes, and I have made them tlie basis of the present 

BiUterfiies of IfawHiiiis and Boiirhon. 433 

list The rmmber of butterflies recorded is twenty- two, 
but there are probably a few more species remaining to be 

Danaida chnjsippus^ L, 
8. Danais Ghrysipp^is^ Linn. 

Mauritius. Common in the low country and some- 
times abundant, scarcer above 1^000 feet. It has been 
noticed as being particularly common after a cyclone^ the 
rain and consequent dampness probably bringing the pupa 
to rapid maturity. The form aleipjms. Cram., has not 
been liitlierto recorded. It is exceedingly rare, and I 
believe I am the only individual who has noticed it ; this 
was at Curepipe 1,860 ft, March 12th, 1907- I), dorippiis^ 
King., does not occur, and this is the more interesting 
as H. imsippus^ form inaria^ does occasionally appear. 
Flies I^XII. 

Bourbon. I found tliis common at St, Denys, and saw 
in the museum specimens of alcipfim which had been 
taken in the neighbourhood. Tlie transformations are 
well known. 

Amaitris phmdon^ Fabr, 

7- Danais Phmdone^ Fabr. 

Peculiar to Mauritius and Madagascar (Mabille) and 
locally known as the ** Banyan butterliy." Rare in the 
higher elevations, locally abundant on the coast, con- 
gregating in numbers after the manner of the DanaidSj 
usually under the shelter of ^'filao** trees (Gasuarina 
equisetifolm). Frequently it flies high among the trees 
and is then difficult to take ; at other times it flies low 
and is easily captured* I found it abundant at Morne 
Brabant in the extreme south-west corner of the island, 
in August; also at Blue Bay on the east coast and 
elsewhere. Flies nearly all the year round. The female 
is distinctly uncommon ; the male is variable more par- 
ticularly on the fore- wing, all variation can be found from 
a well-developed spot in the cell to a complete absence ; 
the spot also in the first median interspace is very variable 
in size ; the band on the hind -wing varies also in breadth. 
The larva is unknown. 

434 Lieut.- Colon el N< Manders on the 

Etiflma ev/phoiUy Fabr. 

6. Evplma EicpTione, Fabi\ 

Abundant everywhere, except in the cold weather. Of 
slow flight and easily captured. I have frequently found 
the eggs of this and tlie following species on " Alamanda " 
(Aiamanda eafJimiiea), hut have never succeeded in rearing 
the larva on this plant, neither have I found the fuil-grown 
larva at large on it, though I have frequently found and 
reared it on Mens rej'^cns. On Aktmcmdei the larva invaria- 
bly dies when quite small, apparently from starvation, and 
I am rather under the impression that the female mistakes 
the food plant. The egg is undistinguishable from E. 
goiidoti, it is of the usual Euploeid shape, pale yellow with 
perpendicular ridges. It is laid on the under margin of 
the smaller leaves, the young larva spins a shglitly woven 
silken pad, and eats the under surface of the leaf in a 
semi-circular manner round it. The full-grown larva is 
pale grey with narrow black lines rlividing the segments. 
Flies I-Y. ; VI-VIII, scarce; IX, becomes common; 
X-XIi, abundant. It does not occur in Bourbon , 

Enpla2a goiidoti^ Boisd, (PI. XXIX^ fig, 1). 

Not a Mauritius butterfly; but I have one speciinen, the 
only one recorded, which was captured by Mr. J. A. de Gaye, 
at Post de Flacq on the north-east side of the island in 
August 1905. The specimen, which is in very bad 
condition^ was probably conveyed from Bourbon by a 
favouring wind. Through the kindness of Mr. de Gaye 
this specimen is now in my collection. See '' Entomologist," 
vol xl, p. 185. BoUREON- Abundant on the coast, pre- 
ferring hot steamy shade, where it flies slowly and is 
captured with ease. I found it common at St. Denys in 
the Botanical Gardens, and it was by no means rare in the 
town itself It scarcely extends above 1,0 UO feet elevation. 
At Hell-Bourg, 3,000 feet^ I saw only one specimen, 
evidently a straggler. The insect in its manner of flight 
and general appearance reminds one very nauch of the 
Indian Evplcea core. 

Its trausforniations have been described. The typical 
species has on the fore wing a &mali ^vhite spot on the 
costa at the end of the cell and another in the second 

BiUterfiiGS of llaurituts and Boui'hon, 435 

mediaa iuterspaee. Some specimens have the wings 
entirely utispotted and others with an additional spat in 
the first median interspace, and I have one specimen with 
faint but decided indications of a submarginal row ; the 
number and size of the spots also vary on the underside. 

Mela7iiHs leda^ L. 
IG- Cyllo Lcda^ Linn. 

Abundant everywhere, particularly at sunset in leafy 
lanes and at the corner of cane-fields, Tlie peculiar habit 
of its near Indian ally M, isinene^oi tilting to one side after 
settlios: and thus reducing the tell-tale shadow was, if I 
remember correctly, first brought to notice by Mr. Ernest 
Green. The same habit is also adopted by this insect, but 
it is by no means confined to the hours of sunsLune, it 
frequently performs thus after sunset. The transforma- 
tions are in all respects similar to those of M, ismene^ and, 
judging by a written description of the larva, it would 
appear that the two are indistinguishable, I have given 
an account of its seasonal changes as they occur in Mauri- 
tius. (Bomb, Nat. Hist. Soc, Feb. 1905.) Flies I-XII. 

BOURBOK* The same remarks apply. It is described 
by Vinson as C\ fulvesceris^ Guenee. 

3Iycalcsis (^Hciiotesia) 7ia7^ciss2is, Fabr, 

17. Myoahds Narcissus ^ Fabi\ 

Abundant everywhere^ and perhaps the commonest 
butterfly in the island. It is very partial to shady lanes 
and bamboo hedges, and is on the wing, flattering close to 
the ground J even in the drenching rain and heavy squalls 
which are the forerunners of a cyclone. Seasonal dimor- 
phism is decidedly noticeable in the colour of the under 
surface of both fore and hind wings, which changes from 
the light yellowish-brown of the hot and dry weatlier to a 
deep purplish-grey in the cold and wet ; the size of the 
ocelli are not markedly affected. The species is equally 
abundant in Bourbon. Flies I-XII. The life history has 
rot, so far as I can ascertain, been recorded. The female 
I observed ovipositing was in cabinet condition ; she 
basked for a few minutes in the sun, and then fluttered on 
to the smaller leaves of the bamboo growing close to the 
ground ; on the under-surface of these she deposited a 

436 Lieut-Colonel N. Manders on the 

single egg. She tlien fiew off and basked again, returning 
in a few minutes to almost the same leaf, where she again 
went through the egg- laying process. 

The egg laid 27, x. 'Oii is globiilatj pale yellDW and shglitly pitted 
and ia distinctly large for the sixe of the biittertly. 

The larva hatched 3, xi, and on einergence was very pale ycUow- 
ish-green with shiny black head, tail bifid, no othur markings could 
be made out. 12. si, length 6 mm,, head black, body pale gli^^tening 
green, under a lena two small prominences on either side of the top 
of the head can be made out, also a green dor^^al line and yellowish 
spiracular lines ; witli a bifid tail, of the same colour on the last 
segment. 20. si, length 10 mm., bead browBj body rather glistening 
greenish-white ; dorsal line well-marked posteriorly, greenish-red ; 
sub-dorsal and spiracular lines yellowish ; all the legs same colour as 
the body. Under a lens the whole body and head is seen to be 
covered with sliort wliitish hairs, and to be niinutely transversely 
striated. The bifid tail beneath, and its base above, the same colour 
as the body, remainder reddish-brown. 10. xii. Full fed, length 
26 mm. ; pale pinkish-brown tinged with green, head darker, A 
dorsal catenulated line, much more pronounced posteriorly, browHj 
fading to greenish-brown towards tlie head, A waved sub-dorsal 
line and straight sub- spiracular line, light brown. Spiracles black, 
legs and prolegs the same colour as the body. 

Pupa, light green with straiglit narrow black transverse line across 
the mouth parts, another similar line at base of wiDg-covers. Of the 
usual Satyrid shape. 

The transformations of this insect take longer for their 
completion than those of the much larger Melanitis kda^ 
though both are very sensitive to meteorological conditions. 

Atella phalanta, Drury. 

9. Atella Phalanta, Dru, 

This is another abundant butterfly both in Mauritius 
and Bourbon, particularly un the sea-coast, where it some- 
times swarms arnong the food-j>l^nt {Flacowrtid). The 

life-historv is well known, 


Flies I- VII, abundant; VI, scarce ; VIII-XII, abundant, 
I liave observed on more than one occasion that for 
twenty -four hours after shedding the larval skin the pupa 
hangs free like that of Vanessa^ and afterwards by a con- 
traction of the abdominal segments it appresses itself along 

BtUterfiies of MaurUius and Bourbon, 437 

the twig from which it is suspended, and becomes attached 
to it by I presume some glutinous material. The usual 
plan, however, is for it to assume this position immediately 
after its release from the larval skin, 

A^itanartia mauritiana, Manders, s, sp, n. (PL XXIX^ fig, 2), 

IL Pyrameis Hippomene, Boisd. 

With the exception of Salamis augustina, quite the 
rarest butterfly in Mauritius and verging on extinction. 
It is probably a local race of the continental A, hippo'inene, 
Htibn,, but is quite distinct from that insect. It is, how- 
ever, very close to A. borbonica, Obertlu, which is also a 
well-marked race of A. Mjypormne. The distinctions 
between tlie Mauritian and Bourbon races, though slight, 
are sufficiently defined to iustifv a separation of the 
insects* The difference, as M. Charles Oberthlir has 
remarked to me* is more in the general facies than in any 
marked character, A horbonica being a larger and far more 
robust-looking butterfly than A. mauriticmcL 

Expanse 47 nun., average of 20 specimen?! (A. horbonica 55 mm., 
average of 4 specimens), the females ratlier larger than the males. 
Porewing.^ — The tranverse orange band on its inner edge is outwardly 
angled or waved at the median nervnre forming the lower portion of 
the celL In A. borhonica this is always straight The outer edge 
of the band is also more distinctly angled or waved at the same place 
than is A. horbonica. Hind wing. There is a great diminution, 
generally an almost total absence, of the blue scales between the 
angle and the tail ; this deficiency is particularly noticeable below 
the ocellus. Hindwing under side. Tlie greon scaling between the 
anal angle and the tail and below the ocellus is confined to a narrow 
marginal line. In A, \borbonica this area of the wing is thickly 
sprinkled with green scales on a black ground^ and tliese scales also 
cover the adjoining portion of the space beyond this. 

The difference in size, and more particularly the greater 
robustness of the Bourbon insect^ is, I believe^ primarily 
due to cHinatic conditions* A, borbonica is never found 
below 2j000 feet. A. matiritiana maintains a precarious 
existence at 1^800 feet, there being very little of the island 
of this elevation and only a few hills rising above 2,000 
feet- The climate is not favourable to the development of 
tlie butter fly^ and what is probably more important, is too 

438 Lieut, -Colon el N, Manders 07i the 

hot for the food phmt. I was much struck in Bourbou 
with the far greater luxuriance, larger leaves and stronger 
growth of the Filca nHicefolia and its great abundance, 
In Mauritius all the plants I have seen, and it is not 
a particularly common one, are more slender, straggly and 
the leaves noticeably thinner and less juicy; and this 
diminished growth would tend to the production of a 
smaller nnd weaker insect Consequently in Bourbon the 
butterfly is large, strong and abundant ; in Mauritius, 
small, weak and very rare. I endeavoured to prove this 
by feeding Mauritius larvee on Bourbon phmts^ but I had 
only two larvse to experiment with, and it is not surprising 
that the results were unsatisfactory ; but it is probable 
that investigations on a larger scale would yield interesting 

The only known locality is Curepipej 1,800 feet. Per- 
sonally I have only once seen it on the wing, this was a 
dilapidated female wliich flew into the verandah of my 
house. Captain Tulloch has taken it on the summit of 
the Trou-aux-cerfs, where it flies between 9 a.m. and 
11 a,m. I have, however, for three consecutive years 
found eggSj larvae and pup^e on the same plant in the 
Botanic Gardens^ Curepipe. There appears to be a suc- 
cession of broods during the hot weather ; in some seasons 
the butterfly appears as early as the end of September 
and occasionally lasts until May; but the usual months 
are February and March. I have found the eggs in 
October and March and the larvee in October, January, 
March, and May, 

The egg is laid on the under surface of the larger leaves 
o( Piiea nHicefolia, It is smooth, conical, dark olive-green 
with flattened top and base. The segments are marked 
with narrow but distinct perpendicular yellow lines, nine 
in number, conver^ins towards the summit but not 
meeting* It has an exact resemblance to a water-melom 
Egg laid ? hatched 8, x, '05; larva full-fed 28, x, ; sus- 
pended before 7 a,m, 5. xi, ; shed its larval skin 4? p.m. 
5. xi. ; emerged IC. xh When first hatched tlie larva is 
uniform yellowish-green, with black spines and shining 
black head. When half-grown, it is uuiforndy black with 
a glistening appearance, with spines bright yellow or some- 
times wliite. The full-grown larva is very variable and 
its colour is influenced by its surroundings. I have given 
a description of this in the *' Entomologist" 

BiUterflks of Mmiritius and Botirhon, 439 

None of the larvse I have seen agree with J)i\ Vinson's 
figure and description of the larva of A. hiyi^hmicct (Oberth. 
"Etud d^Eat/'12, p. 17, t. 4, 1S88), except that the spines 
are yellow with bhick points, set on bright yellow or dull 
ochreous bases. Tlie pupae are similar iu shape, but, as I 
have shown elsewhere,* the colour is markedly influenced 
by its environment 

The larva is very easily detected by its habit of forming 
a tent for itself by making two scimitar-shaped incisions 
in a leaf right down to the mid-rib, and then bending over 
the tip and attaching it to the under surface of the leaf 
with a few silken threads. The full-fed larvae frequently 
discard tliis method of concealnicot and feed openly, but 
invariably rest on the under surface of the leaf. 1 have 
found eggs, larvaa and papo3 on the same plant at the 
same time, 

Antanartia horhmiica^ Oberth. 

Common in Bourbon above 2^000 feet^ abundant at 
Hell-bourg, Salazie, 3,000 feet. I never saw the perfect 
insect, but evidences of the larva were everywhere abun- 
dant on the food-plants- My only capture^s were one 
empty egg-shell and one cast larval skin, which was 
aggravating, but illness was responsible for my non-success. 
It was considered to be peculiar to Bourbon, but Mabille 
has lately recorded it from the interior of Madagascar, 

Pi/rcuneis cardic\ L, 

10, Pi/rameis Oardu% Linn, 

Mauritius, Rare and local. Its chief and almost only 
locality is the Trou-aux-cerfs, 2,000 ft. where I have 
occasionally found it in December^ though it occurs 
sparingly in other months. It differs iu no way from 
European specimens. 

Bourbon. Rare, and only in the hill districts, I saw 
a beautifully fresh specimen at Hell-Bourg, 3,000 ft. in 

Precis rJiadama, Boisd, 

12* Jimonia Ilkadama, Boisd, 

Mauritius. Common everywhere and frequently 
abundant on the coast It is perhaps the most strikingly 

* "Entomologist,'' vol. xxxix, p. 41. 

440 Lieat,-Colonel N. Mauders on the 

beautiful butterfly in Mauritius^ the brilliant sapphire-bine 
of the freslily emerged male being exquisite. I have 
noticed dozens at a time on the steep hill-side at Port 
Louis leading up to the Citadel. It has the habits of our 
small Tortoisesliell, and its goi'geous colouring can easily 
be watched and admired. Pairing takes place in the 
hottest sunshine, all the females being freshly emerged, 
It was introduced into the island about the year 1857 or 
1858, and soon established itself (Trimen). The species 
is very constant on the upper wings, though the female 
is slightly prone to vary in the amount of blue, vvliich is 
sometimes partially replaced by fuscous ; but on the under 
surface it varies much in accordance with the climate, the 
under surf^ice of those from the Black River district on the 
western portion of the island which is very dry, have all 
the markings indistinct and blurred, and the groundcolour 
varying shades of grey. 

Flies 1 — ^YI, abundant; VII — IX, scarce; X- — XII, 

Bourbon. The same remarks apply generally. Vinson, 
1891, says "that it is a recent importation due to chance," 
It would appear to liave been introduced some thirty years 
later than into Mauritius, and this may be due to more 
irregular and infrequent communication with the outside 
world in the case of Bourbon. The larva feeds on Barhria^ 
and is well figured and described by Vinson (*' Etudes 
d'Ent;* Oherthiir, 1888). 

Salauiis augtcstina^ Boisd. (PL XXIX, fig. 3), 

13. Jitnonia Augustina^ Boisd. 

This butterfly is one of exceptional interest, as it is 
almost certainly extinct, no specimen having been taken 
for twelve years. So far as I can ascertain from extensive 
inquiries in thi:^ country and abroad, there are only two 
specimens extant ; one in Mr. Trimen's collection given to 
him in the year 18G5 by the late Mr. Colville Barclay 
taken in the Moka district and the other, here figured, in 
the Port Louis Museum. It is well therefore to put on 
record all that I have learnt regarding the latest captures 
of this rare insect. It wa^ getting very scarce when Mr. 
Trimen was in tiie island in 1865, and it is strange that 
an insect whose larva feeds on the sugar-cane which covers 
the greater portion of Mauritius should not rather be over- 

Batter flies of Mmtritius and Bourhoiu 4tl 

abundant than otherwise. I attribute its disappearance to 
the depredations of the Indian Mynah* (AcridothereB tTistis\ 
which was introduced some hundred years ago for the 
purpose of keeping in check tlie field-crickets and other 
insects which were destroying the canes. The bird is 
protected and is consequently over-abuodant, flying in 
small flocks of twenty to thirty all over the country, and 
inakinsr themselve.^ a general nuisance- The bird was 
also brought into Bourbon, but fortunately for S, augushna 
so frequently finds its way into the cooking-pots of the 
natives^ tliat the butterfly survives though in greatly 
diminished numbers. In Madagascar where the ^* Mynah" 
is unknown, S, migiistina is not uncommon. Man therefore 

Salamis augustma; the specimen in the Port Louis Museum. 

is responsible for the extinction of the butterfly. The 
Port Louis specimen came from tlie collection of the late 
M, Reynard, who some five-and-twenty years ago bred 
some half dozen specimens from larvae found in hid garden 
on Trianon estate in the Moka district. At his death 
they came into the possession of the Port Louis Museum 
authoritieSj but only the one specimen could be preserved, 
the reniainder being in fragments. In August 181)5 Dr. 
Bolton captured two within a few minutes of each other, 
at Souillac on the east coast. He tells me that he liad no 
difficulty in catching them, as they w^ere hovering over 
some vanilla plants. Unfortunately during his absence in 
England his collection became mouldy, and offending the 
aesthetic tastes of hj>s relations was cast into the dust-lieap. 
This is the last capture I have been able to ascertain. I 

'^ By ckBtroying the larva?. 

442 Lieut-Colonel N. Maiidcrs 07i the 

almost liesitate to record that at 0.30 a,m, March IDtli, 
1906 (I am particular as to the date) at Ciirepipe Railway 
Station, a butterdy ilew past me which I am satisfied in 
my own mind was this particular insect. I was near 
enough to see distinctly the peculiai' shape of the forewings 
—but I refrain from further harrowing details ! let it 
sutiice I did not capture it. 

BouilBOX. In this island it is becoming very rare ; I saw 
five specimens in the museum at St. Denys, which seemed 
to be tslightly different from the Mauritius form. Dr. 
Vinson says that it flies between 9 am. and 10 a.m,, in 
April and May and again in September. Unfortunately 
M, Reynard's coloured drawings uf the larvae have heuu 
h^st, I am greatly indebted to Captain Stammers^ 
R.A3I.C., for the photograph from which the figure is 
made, giving an accurate representation of the appearance 
of the specimen in the Port Louis Museum, Also to Mr. 
Ruland Trim en, F.R.S., for the loan of his specimen above 
referred to, and figured on Plate XXIX. 

Hypolimnas mui2ypus, L, 
15. Diadema Bolma^ Linn. 

Mauritius. Not by any means a common insect, but 
widely distributed. Three forms of the female occur, the 
most frequent being the miniic of D, rlir/fsi^qjus, the 
form inaria I have rarely seen, and of the form alcippoidcs 
one specimen unly in the Port Louis Museum. 1 have 
found it at Curepipe, Quatre Bornes, 500 feet, and at 
Mahebourg on the coast It occurs also at Pamplemoiisses 
and in the Moka district it Flies IX-XL 

BouREON. Rare, and only found on the coast I saw 
either this or the next species in April settled on the 
flowers of the ZaTUana in an inaccessible spot in the bed 
of the river at St. Denys. 

Hypolimnas holina^ L, 

I have only seen two specimens of this insect in 
Mauritius, one^ a femalcj in the Port Louis Museum, which 
was captured somewhere in the Moka district about five 
miles from Port Louis^ and the other, a male, taken near 
the harbour of Port Louis by Mr, de Gaye in February 
190G.* This sjijeciuieu is now iu my cullectioa; it is in 

^ There is a third specimen in the British Museum cullecLion 
captured by Capt TullocL. 

BuUerJlies of Maiiritiim and Boiirhon. 443 

very bad conditiou, and I have little doubt it was imported. 
Vinson records tliis from Bourbon, but I have no doubt he 
has raisTiamed the species, the insect occurring in Bourbon 
being iT. niisipptts, 

Weptis {^Bahindci) frahenia^ Fabr. 

14. Ne%itis Froheiiia, Fabr, 

Usuallj common in the more wooded parts of the island, 
but difficult to take in good condition as it soon tatters 
itself from its habit of flying in and out of the bushes. 
It has a floating flight very similar to L. sihylla. I liave 
never found the larva, FHes, I-VI^ common; VII, VIII^ 
scarce ; IX, uncommon ; X-XII, common, 

Nepiis (Bahmda) ditmetorum^ Boisd. 

This differs from the above chiefly by the presence of 
several small dots of white on the fore wings which 
give it a speckled appearance. It is far more common 
than N, frobenia, being very abundant, sometimes almost 
swarming on the loquot trees. It feeds on Tragia. The 
larva and^ pnpa have been figured and described by 
Vinson (** Etudes d'Ent." Oberth. 1888). It is an extremely 
pretty insect, wit!i a most elegant flight, and is almost 
the first butterfly one notices in the woods. It is only 
found in the moister portion of the island where tliere 
is plenty of forest. Mabille reports it from Madagascar 
also ; but for many years it was considered one of the few 
butterflies peculiar to Bourbon. 

14* Lihytliea cinyras, Trimen (Plate XXIX, fig. 4). 

I am unable to add anything to Mr. Trimen^s remarks 
on this species. His specimen was given to him by the 
late Mr. Barclay, who informed him that the insect came 
from the Moka district^ and was ^' very scarce in Mauritius," 
which implies that Mr. Barclay knew of other specimens. 
If it were not for this remark I should have been inclined 
to look upon Mr. Trimen's specimen as a casual importa- 
tion. The whole of the Moka district is now under sugar 
cultivation, and no species of this genus is now known to 
occur in Mauritius ; it is also absent from Bourbon. Mr. 
Trimen has very kindly lent me his single example for 

444- Lieut -Colon el N, Manders 07i the 

Cupido (Caq/reifs) lingens^ Cram. 

Not lutlierto recorded, and quite a recent iotroJuctioii, 
I ibuud it commonly in the Botanical Gardens, Curepipe 
on Colens liyhrida^ on which tlie larva feeds. The Super- 
in tendon t told me that these plants came from Madagascar, 
and there is no doubt the insect was brought \vith them. 
It was not captured by Captain Tullocli up to the year 
1902, though he was constantly in the gardens for two or 
three years. It is now quite common, but seldom wanders 
far from the food plant The males are by no means so 
numerous as the females. It is quite one of tlie most 
confidential butterflies I know, I have frequently boxed 
them off the food plant. It is uf enormously wide dis- 
tribution, beinff recorded fiom Sierra Leone to Delagjoa 
Bay and Madagascar, and now ytill further east to Bourbon 
and Mauritius. The transformations do not appear to 
have been recorded. 

The egg is laid in bright sunshine during the liottest hours of 
the day ; it is of the usual echinuid shape, pale whitisli green, and 
usually laid on its edge at the base of a flower on a spike of CoUu$. 
The full-fed larva is shaped like a wood-lousej length 12 mm., pale 
pinkish-green with pink dorsal line and deeper pink epiracular 
line ; between the two are two diagonal pink lines, the upper and 
shorter passing from before backwards and downwards, the other 
backwards and upwards. Body covered sparingly with short whitish 
hairs bending forwardf?* Head very small and black. 

Pupa snme colour as the larva but paler, covered with minute 
scattered hairs ; dorsal and spiraraihir lines light reddish-browDj 
a row of minute dots^ the posterior the larger, between the two, 
A conspicuous black mark of irregular shape on either side of dorsal 
line at the base of the wing covers. 

The larva usually feeds on the flowers, and is admirably 
protected when resting on the similarly coloured stem of 
the food plant. It usually pupates head dowmw^ards on 
the stem of tlie Ookiis^ but sometinies on the upperside 
and centre of the leaf, I have frequently seen ants 
crawling over the larva, but tliey appeared to pay no 
particular attention to it. Flies I-XII. 

BoUKBON, Not hitherto recorded, though I found it 
c^uite common in the Museum Gardens fluttering about 
the food plants, which were T believe bronght from 

^ Butter jiics of Mauritius and Bonrhon. 44-5 

Madagascar, I believe its advent to be quite recent, as 
I can scarcely credit such an excellent observer as the late 
Dr. Vinson overlooking it. 

Cupido {Ta7*tiC'iis) tdicanus^ Lang. 

20; LyeiBiia Tclicanus^ Herbst. 

Very abundant in both islands. Flies, I-V, abundant ; 
VI-VIII, none; IX-XII, abundant. All my specimens 
appear to me to be remarkably dark. 

Cupido {Lampides) hmticus^ L. 

19. Lycmna Bcetica, Linn. 

More common in some years than in others, sometimes 
abundant. The larva fecdy in ttie interior of pea-pods, 
and nut un frequently gets cooked and brought to table, 
on which occasions it may be regarded as a nuisance, I 
have known it to be so abundant as to cause a serious 
diminution in the pea crop, and in some seasons to be 
quite scarce. In Bourbon it is likewise of irregular 
occurrence. Flies all the year round. The larva and 
pupa have been described irequently. 

Cupido (Zizera) gaiha, Trim en. 

Not recorded hitherto from Mauritius, but widely dis- 
tributed and usually very common^ fluttering about short 
herbage or settled on the tlowers of Lantana. It varies 
greatly in size, and the female, as is so frequently the 
case in this genus, varies very much in the amount of 
blue on the upperside* Flies, I-I V, common ; VI, scarce ; 
VII, VIII, scarce or absent; IX-XII, very tommon at all 

BoUEnoN. Kot previously recorded, but I found it very 
common un the racecourse at St. Denys, and it doubt- 
less occurs elsewhere. The transformations have been 

Cupido {Zizera) lysimo7i^ Hiibner, 

21. Lycmna Zysimo7i, Godt. 

Very abundant both in Mauritius and Bourbon, The 
specimens are usually very fine, and hirger than the 
general run of Indian specimens. It is found in more 

446 Lieut, -Colonel N, Manders on the 

or less profusion all the year round in gardens and waste 
lands. The transformations are well known, Lyciena 
wylica has been recorded by Guenee from Bourbon and 
is incorporated in Vinson's list without remark. By the 
figure given in Melville it is very close to and perhaps 
identical witii lysiinon, 

Ciqndo {Zizevft) antanossa^ Mabille. 

Mabille, "Bull do la Soa Ent. de France" (1877), p, lOL 
Not previously recorded from Mauritius, and apparently 
absent irom Bourbon. I think it is a recent arrival, as 
it was not taken by Captain Tulloch, who collected in the 
island until three or four years ago. It is widely dis- 
tributed and not uncommon, but is quite likely to be 
overlooked, as it flies with f/aiica and lysimion and might 
be readily mistaken for either. It has a great resemblance 
to the Indian Z. maha^ and undergoes the same seasonal 
changes. It has the same habits as the rest of the genus, 
flying low about the herbage and never resorting to bushes 
or trees. I give the various localities where I h^ave taken 
it I first took it at Quatre Bornes in November 1905, 
when it was worn. In the following month (3rd and 11th) 
it was in good condition and more common. On Trianon 
estate one specimen, XII At Le Reduit in the Governor's 
Garden, iv. '06^ a few. At the Citadel, Port Louis, 
7. xi. '06, numerous, and one specimen in the garden of 
my house at Curepipe. It occurs therefore at all elevations 
from the coast to 1,800 feet It is rare in Madagascar, 
but has a wide range in Natal and Central Africa, 

Nacathiba mmiders% Druce (Plate XXIX, figs. 5, Sa), 

Described and named from specimens collected by 
me by Mr. Hamilton H. Druce, (''Atm. and Mag. Nat 
Hist." Ser. 7, vol. xx, p, 219, September 1907). 

It is surprising that it has not been previously discovered 
in Mauritius, as it is abunrlant at Blue Bay> Maheburg, a 
noted place for picnics; but it is never found away from the 
food-plant, which being of an abominably pricklj nature is 
naturally avoided. The manner of flight is quite different 
from any other Lycsenid found in the island, and it was 
this peculiarity which first attracted my attention. It flies 
very much like the ''Holly-blue," well above the ground 
and sometimes to a considerable height, and indulges in 

BuUerfiics of MmtritmB cmd Bmtrhon. 447 

frantic combats witli others of its kind. With few excep- 

tioQS all the other Lyca3Mids belong to the genus Zizerci 
which never fly far from the ground, and usually within a 
ibw inches of it. 

There is a certain amount of seasonal dimorphism 
observable, the specimens in the cold weather having a 
more or less well- marked submarginal band on the under- 
side of the hind-wing, pale grey or whitish. It is probably 
abundant wherever the food -plant occurs. I found it at 
Blue Bay commonly^ at Morne Brabant in the extreme 
south-west of the island also commonly, and it occurs also 
at Flacq^ on the north-east coast. It is never found above 
the seacoast. 

The female lays her eggs during the hottest hours of the day on 
the under surface of the youag leaves of C^salpinia bonducella^ 
called Cadoque by the natives. The egg is of the usual Lycaenid 
shape, but flatter, pale green. The larva when first liatched is 
uuiform greenish- wliitej heiid blacky under a lens the buJy is seen 
to be covered with white hairs. During the day it rests eoncealed 
beneath the leaves of the food plant* When half -grown it is pale 
apple-green with a yeilowish line on either side of dorsum and a 
spiracular line of the same colour. Full fed length 10 mm, varies 
from pale green to brownish-gTeen with a pink tinge. On either 
side of the dorsum, which is darker than the ground colour, is 
a pale pink line and a spiracular line of the same colour ; each 
segment is further marked by sliort diagonal lines rather darter 
than the ground colour. Legs same colour as the body, which 
under a lens is seen to be covered with white hairs five-rayed. 
Head black. 

Popa pale greyish-purple with narrow purple dorsal line and 
a broader but shorter line on either side most prominent on the 
last two segments ; two deep purple circular spots in line with these 
at the base of the wing covers, and two other much smaller spots 
on either side between tliem and the head, AIy3 pale green. 

Egg hatched, 26. viii ; pupa, 14. ix ; imago, 24, ix, '05. 
The butterfly probably flies all tlie year round. 

Cat(ypsilia Jiordla^ Fabr. 

2. CaUidryas Flordla^ Eabr. 

3. Ccdlidryas Mhadia, Boisd. 
Introduced into Mauritius probably with the food plant 

TRANS. ENT* SOC. LONC. 1907. — PART I\\ (FEB. *08.) 30 

448 Lieut-Colonel K, Manders 07i the 

(Cassia) whicli is not a native. It is usually scarce in 
the bill districtSt but common lower down, and would be 
extremely abundant if it were not for the tremendous 
destruction of eggs and larvae* I doubt whether one egg 
in five hundred ever comes to maturity, I have noticed 
ft plant fairly covered with egg^ and two days afterwards 
they were comparatively scarce. Ants carry them off by 
hundreds, and the young larvse are eaten by a small green 
spider. The larvse in tlie last sta^Uum vary considerably. 
In many, perhaps tlie majority, the lateral white line is 
tinged with orange and the black lateral line is continued 
as a black collar behind the head ; the last two or three 
segments are also more or less crossed by extensions of 
the black lateral lines. I may say that the sex of the 
perfect insect is in no way indicated by the different 
markings of the larva. There are two broods in the hot 
weather, at the beginning of December, and another in 
February and March ; the pupie from the majority of this 
brood remain over the cold weather and emerge the 
followin'i December. 

BoUKBON. I did not meet with this insect, and Vinson 
says it is rare. 

Tiyrias fio7%colaj Boisd, 

5, Terias Floricola^ Eoisd. 

MAURlTlua Scarce above 1^000 feet; common and fre- 
quently abundant below this level, and widely distributed. 
The dry- weather form, Terkm cei^es^ But!., occurs sparingly, 
but so far as I have observed, in the low country only. 
Flies all the year round except in the coldest month, July. 
The same remarks apply to the species in Bourbon. 

Terias jndchellai Boisd. 
4. Terias MalieL Fabr, 

If it were not for the opinion expressed by Trim en 
("S. Afr. Butt/' 3, p, IS, note 1 [1S89]), that this is dis- 
tinct from Terias hrigittay I should certainly consider it to 
be the same species, as I have specimens from Mauritius 
which are indistinguisluible from T. hrigitta^ or rather 
T. zoe, from Natal. ^ 

It caUj I think, be considered as at most a geographical 
race of that species. The wet-season form {T zoe) is far 
more frequently met with than the dry (1\ hi-iyitta), and 

Bidterfiies of Mcmritius amd Bourbon. 4149 

indeed I have not personally met with the latter, but am 
under the impression that I have seen one or two 
specimens in the Port Louis Museum. Its absence can 
be readily understood in the damp climate of Mauritius, 
It is not common, but is found at Moka and in the 
Botanical Gardens at Pamplemousses ahiiost at sea-level, 
always in the neighboiirhood of its food plant Te/phrosia. 
It is absent, or very rare (once at Curepipe) above 1,000 
feet J and disappears in the cold weather. It is very 
variable in size, those found in October being usually 
larger tiian those captured in April The transformations 
of T. hrigitta are well known, but those of T, pidchella 
have not been described. 

The egg laid April 9th ; lititched April lllli. Spun np April 19th, 
and the butterfly emerged May 2nd. The larva when first hatched 
is uniform pale yellowish^green^ and wheu niagtiified is seen to be 
cov^ered with whitish reversed hairs, which, however, disappear 
when the larva is full grown. The full-fed larva is green, with thin 
yellow spiracular, and broader purplish-brown dorsal, lines. Pupa 
pale apple-green, wing coTets streaked with purplish-brown; dorsum 
and sides thickly sprinkled with small spota of the same colour. 
Spins up on the stem of the food plant. Larva and pupa of the 
usual Pierine shape. 

It does not occur in Bourbon* 

Pa/pilio mmiiius^ Qodt. 

1. Papilio Phorhmita^ Linn, 

This beautiful butterfly is coinmon everywhere and 
excites the admiration of the least observant. It flies 
all the year round, though the specimens seen in the cold 
weather are usually tattered individuals of longer life than 
their fellows. The female can easily be distinguished on 
tbe wing by the absence of the white band which is such 
a conspicuous feature on the undersurface of the hind 
wing of the male, Tlie larva feeds on citron, but I am 
unable to say in what respect it differs from the Bourbon 
species P. pliorbantcL Dr. Vinson, writing on the butter- 
flies of Bourbon in 189 G, makes the following interesting 
remark. He says that in 1669 the Count of Mont de 
Vergue arrived with ten vessels and sowed Madagascar 
and afterwards '' Mascareigne '' and Mauritius with the 
seeds of various citrons which he had brought from 

450 Lieut-Co] onel N. Manders 07i the 

Brazil ; and he suggests that possibly tliese green Papilios^ 
or more probably their common ancestor, were thus intro- 
duced. He inclines to the view^ however, that the citron 
is indigenous to all these islands. I should say that the 
Madagascar^ Bourbon^ and Mauritius green Pa^ilios are 
probably derived from some African ancestor closely allied 
to P. neretis, 

Papilio plwrhanta^ h, (Ph XXIX, figs. C, Ga). 

Confined to Bourbon, where it is known as P. dlsparilis^ 
Boisd. Common, not to say abundant, on the coast and 
up to about 2,(J00 feet, I never saw a single specimen at 
3,000 feet, and its distribution is no doubt determined by 
the food plant. It feeds on citron^ and the larva has been 
figured and described by Vinson. It is no doubt un- 
palatable in the larval stage. The female is aberrant, 
and is an admirable example of what Scudder calls 
** colon rational antigeny '' in whicli it is the female that 
departs from the normal colouring of the group to which 
the species belongs. It is presumably a mimic of Euj)lma 
ffoudoti, and in such a small island as Reunion the exciting 
cause should not be difficult to discover. I may say fairly 
confidently, that there is no bird now existing which makes 
any marked ravages among the butterflies. Indeed birds 
are conspicuous by their absence^ and are as rare in Reunion 
as they are in France and Italy, and for the same reason ; 
afibrding a marked contrast to Mauritius, wliere they are 
protected and consequently abundant. 

I was informed, however, by Dr- Jacob, who has resided 
for some fifty years in Reunion, that at one time the now ex* 
tinct *' starling " (Fregilupus vainus) was decidedly common, 
especially in those parts more particularly frequented by 
P, jjliOThanta, and, judging by the stuffed specimen in the 
St. Denys Museum, I should say that the bird was entirely 
insectivorous, I throw out the suggestion that it was tliis 
bird that was the main cause of tliis case of mimicry. 
We have therefore in these two islands two cases of the 
marked effect of birds on butterflies. In Mauritius?, which 
had no indigenous starling, the introduction of the Indian 
starling caused the extinction of Salamis augustina, and 
in Reunion the presence of the Reunion starling gave rise 
to a remarkable case of mimicry. 

As habit, manner of flight and so forth is now regarded 

ButterJlieB of MmirUi/iis and Bmirlfon. 451 

as of high importance in deciding questions of mimicry, I 
put on recoi'd my observations regarding F, ijJiorhanta and 

Mwplma goitdotin 

St, Denys, where I cliiefly collected, is a town on the 
outskirts of which the houses are situated in the midst of 
gardens of considerable size, and both species are common 
flying about the roads, I secured all my specimens in the 
Botanic Gardens, which comprise an area of three or four 
acres laid out with avenues of palms, and extensive shrub- 
beries of Alamanda, Hihisam, and other shrubs growing to 
a height of ten or fifteen feet. These were intersected by 
narrow paths, which were consequently shady, and at the 
same time very hot and steamy from the fountains which 
were pretty numerous. 

In these shady groves the Euploea was abundant, with a 
more lazy flight than is usual even with an UuplcEa; many 
were busy ovipositing on the Almnanda shrubs. Other 
parts of the gardens were laid out in flower-beds and were 
more open, but Enplma certainly preferred the shade, 
P. pkorhmita was also common in the garden. It was not 
difficult to catch, as it flew about ten feet from the ground 
across the broader (h'ives, I should not call the flight 
particularly rapid for a Papilio, but when frightened it 
made off at a considerable pace. Numerous females were 
flying about in a similar manner to the males. I noticed 
two or three females at different times in the shrubberies 
fluttering close to the ground, and from the manner of 
their flight I think they were contemplating ovipositiou, 
but they did not do so, though I followed them assiduously 
from one citron tree to another. Under tliese circum- 
stances they were on Euplma ground, and I can imagine 
an unobservant person passing through the gardens and 
being under the impression that he had seen only one 
kind of brown butterfly, 

Fcqnlio (Orpheides) demodoeus^ Esp, 

This abundant and conspicuous insect could scarcely 
have escaped Mr, Trimen*s notice, so I conclude that it 
has been introduced into the island since he was there in 
1865, It occurs all over the island in every month in the 
year. The larva is welJ known. 

It is equally abundant in Bourbon, and was introduced 
into that island some thirty years ago by Dr, Vinson, who 

452 Li en t. -Colon el N, Manders on the 

imported larvae from Madagascar. Unfortunately at the 
very time of its arrival a Coccid attacked and destroyed 
large numbers of the orange trees, but the damage was 
not unnaturally attributed by the natives to the more 
conspicuous larvse of dciaodocu^, which increased alarm- 
ingly and no doubt did considerable mischief. The 
butterfly was consequently given the name of '"^ Le papillon 
Vinson/' which it still retains, and at the time of my visit 
the name of Vinson in this connection was still regarded 
with some feelings of bitterness by the more ignorant, 

Bhypalocmnpta forestrm, Cram. 
25. Imiene Florcskm, Cram. 

Common on the sea-coast, where its food plant Tcr- 
minalia grows. Stragglers may be found pretty constantly 
at the hi<dier elevation, and it is not at all uncommon at 
Curepipe, 1,800 feet. It has a quick darting flight, but 
tlie conspicuous white band on the nndersurface of the 
hind wing makes it easy to follow- Flies T-IV, IX-XII. 
The same remarks apply to the insect in Bourbon, Vinson 
writes in 189G, *' Introduced about fifty years ago with 
some botanical plants into the Botanic Gardens when 
M- Claude Richard was director/' 

Eagris sctbadms^ Boisd. 

24. ]Viso7iiades Sabadms^ Boisd. 

Widoly distributed and not uncommon. It has a wild 
rapid tlight and soon tatters itself. It has a habit of 
resting with widely-expanded wings on the upper side of 
a leaf. The upper-surface is variable both in colonr of 
the wings and in the size of the spots ; but this is not, so far 
as I have observed^ in any wu}^ seasonal. The larva feeds 
on Hihiscim. Flies all the year round except VII and 
VIII. It is recorded from Bourbon, but I did not myself 
meet with it. 

JPmyhara borhonica^ Boisd* 

22. FainphUa Borbonica, Boisd. 

Abundant both in Mauritius and Bourbon near sugar- 
cane and bamboos ; the larva feeds ou Ftuiiscnm, The 
insect settles with closed winq-s, but is tiuick and active 
like all Hespei'iidm and soon tatters itself, FUes I-VII, 

ButtGrJlies of McmHtius and Bourhon, 453 

abundant; VIII, scarce; IX-XII, abundant* It is not a 
variable insect. 

Parnava mareJiMlUf Boisd, 
23. Pamphila MaTchall% Boisd. 

Known in Mauritius, but erroneously, as ^C5^?erm ^70 ?6iim, 
a Madagascan species. It is usually very common, and 
is the most -' confidential '' skipj3er of my acquaintance ; I 
have not infrequently captured it in my fingers when 
basking in the sun. The larva feeds on sugar-cane. Flies 
I-V, common ; VI-VIII, scarce ; IX-XII, common. It 
has not been recorded from Bourbon. 

A lontj series shows considerable variation on the fore 
wing, the spots, though never more than two in number, 
are frequently reduced to mere points and in some 
specimens are completely absent, the entire wiug being 
an uniform yellowish brown. In the female the spots are 
larger and altogether more pronounced. 

Note. — P7*ecis rhadama. My remark as to the date of 
its introduction into Bourbon being later than into 
Mauritius must be modified or withdrawn, Guenee, in 
Maillard, "Notes sur Tile de la Reunion 18G3/' states that 
it was introduced "about twelve years previously/' i^. 
about 1851, 

Cato-psilia floreUa. — When I wrote that the different 
markings on this larva were not indicative of the sex of 
the future butterfly^ I was unaware of Vinson's different 
conclusion quoted by Guenee in the above work* Vinson 
says that ail the caterpillars which produce the yellow 
variety have the ^* first segment of the neck" entirely 
black, Avhile the larvae without the black collars produce 
the wliite butterflies. Guenee adds, " this curious observ- 
ation ought to be repeated/^ I do not know whether in 
this long interval of nearly fifty years any one has carried 
out Guenee's suggestion, but I append my results which 
show that Vinson's opinion was founded in error — not an 
error due to carelessness but to a curious chance. 

Two pupse from larvse witli '* black collars" (pupated 
22 I, emerged 3 II) were both males, of coarse white. 

Two pupse from larva:^ without *' black collars" (pupated 
28 I5 emerged 4 II) were one male, one yellow female„ 

454 Lieut.-Colooel N, Manders on BuUerJlies of Maiiritms, 

One pupa from larva without black collar (emerged 
12 11)^ white female. 

Two piipm from larvae with incoruplete collar (emerged 
6 Il)j two yellow females. 

Explanation of Plate XXIX. 

See Mxplanc^tion facing the Plate.